Malignant mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that affects the thin lining of the body’s internal organs, known as the mesothelium. As the word malignant implies, it is a deadly disease that often has a poor prognosis.
There are three primary types of mesothelioma:
- Malignant pleural mesothelioma – occurs in the lining of the lungs (pleura)
- Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma – occurs in the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum)
- Malignant pericardial mesothelioma – occurs in the lining of the heart (pericardium)
What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?
Mesothelioma is caused by asbestos exposure. Asbestos is a toxic, naturally occurring mineral that was frequently used across a wide variety of industries until about the 1980s. Microscopic asbestos fibers enter the body by inhalation or ingestion. Once inside the body, the asbestos fibers can cause inflammation and scarring, which ultimately leads to the development of cancerous mesothelioma cells.
There is a long latency period between initial asbestos exposure and the onset of mesothelioma symptoms – sometimes as long as 30 to 50 years. Exposure can happen directly, such as at a jobsite (factory, shipyard, mine, etc.) or indirectly through secondary exposure. Spouses and children of those exposed to asbestos have developed malignant mesothelioma as a result of such secondary exposure.
How is Malignant Mesothelioma Treated?
Mesothelioma prognosis is poor, as often the disease will be diagnosed in its later stages after symptoms have appeared. However, there are several treatment options for the management of this type of cancer.
Surgery : Surgery for malignant mesothelioma involves the removal of all or part of the pleura, peritoneum, or pericardium. Portions of adjacent organs and lymph nodes may also be removed if the cancer has spread to them.
More aggressive therapies are now possible for patients with mesothelioma diagnosed in its earlier stages. For example, extrapleural pneumonectomy is now an option for many pleural mesothelioma patients who are deemed eligible for aggressive surgery. Extrapleural pneumonectomy involves the removal of the entire affected lung, the pericardium, the pleura, and the diaphragm.
Malignant Mesothelioma Types
The types of malignant mesothelioma are distinguished primarily by the location where they first develop within the body – typically the linings of the lungs or abdomen, but also rarely in the linings of the heart or testicles.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma accounts for about 70% of mesothelioma cases, and it occurs in the mesothelial membrane surrounding the chest cavity and lungs. As the most common form of the malignancy, pleural mesothelioma has had more research invested in it, and there are a variety of treatment options available for it.
How is Malignant Mesothelioma diagnosed?
The earliest signs of malignant mesothelioma include chest pain, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, chronic cough, or difficulty swallowing. However, because these symptoms are also associated with other conditions, further diagnostic procedures are usually required to make an accurate diagnosis.
Diagnostic tests can include:
- Imaging Scans: X-ray, CT scan, MRI, or PET scan
- Blood Tests: Assays that look for biomarkers in the bloodstream
- Biopsies: Taking tissue samples for study under a microscope
Misdiagnosis is easy with malignant mesothelioma, because the disease’s symptoms so closely resemble those of other related conditions such as lung cancer or other respiratory ailments. For this reason those who are at high-risk of mesothelioma due to asbestos exposure should consult with physicians and cancer centers well versed in the treatment and diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.
What options do Malignant Mesothelioma Patients have?
Unfortunately, many of those diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma have incurred illness as a result of a negligent exposure to asbestos. It’s now clear that many asbestos manufacturers were well aware of the hazards of asbestos and asbestos exposure. Hundreds of thousands of laborers and workers have been exposed in shipyards, power plants, factories, and other jobsites – thousands of whom develop malignant mesothelioma each year.
Individuals with malignant mesothelioma or any other asbestos-related health complications should consult with a mesothelioma specialist to learn about the treatment options that are available.
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