Heart diseases

Congestive Heart Failure: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Congestive heart failure
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What is congestive heart failure?

Congestive heart disappointment (CHF) is a constant dynamic condition that influences the directing intensity of your heart muscles. While regularly alluded to just as “heart disappointment,” CHF particularly alludes to the phase in which liquid develops around the heart and makes it pump wastefully.

You have four heart chambers. The upper portion of your heart has two atria, and the lower half of your heart has two ventricles. The ventricles draw blood to your body’s organs and tissues, and the atria get blood from your body as it flows once again from whatever remains of your body.

CHF creates when your ventricles can’t draw blood in adequate volume to the body. In the end, blood and different liquids can move down inside your:

  • lungs
  • abdomen
  • liver
  • lower body

CHF can be life-threatening. If you suspect you or someone near you has CHF, seek immediate medical treatment.

What are the most common types of CHF?

Left-sided CHF is the most well-known kind of CHF. It happens when your left ventricle doesn’t appropriately draw blood out to your body. As the condition advances, liquid can develop in your lungs, which makes breathing troublesome.

There are two kinds of left-sided heart failure:

  • Systolic heart failure occurs when the left ventricle fails to contract normally. This reduces the level of force available to push blood into circulation. Without this force, the heart can’t pump properly.
  • Diastolic failure, or diastolic dysfunction, happens when the muscle in the left ventricle becomes stiff. Because it can no longer relax, the heart can’t quite fill with blood between beats.

Right-sided CHF occurs when the right ventricle has difficulty pumping blood to your lungs. Blood backs up in your blood vessels, which causes fluid retention in your lower extremities, abdomen, and other vital organs.

It’s possible to have left-sided and right-sided CHF at the same time. Usually, the disease starts in the left side and then travels to the right when left untreated.

Congestive heart failure stages

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Congestive heart failure causes?

CHF may come about because of other wellbeing conditions that specifically influence your cardiovascular framework. This is the reason it’s critical to get yearly checkups to bring down your hazard for heart medical issues, including (hypertension), coronary vein malady, and valve conditions.

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Hypertension

When your blood pressure is higher than normal, it may lead to CHF. Hypertension has many different causes. Among them is the narrowing of your arteries, which makes it harder for your blood to flow through them.

Coronary artery disease

Cholesterol and other types of fatty substances can block the coronary arteries, which are the small arteries that supply blood to the heart. This causes the arteries to become narrow. Narrower coronary arteries restrict your blood flow and can lead to damage in your arteries.

Valve conditions

Your heart valves regulate blood flow through your heart by opening and closing to let blood in and out of the chambers. Valves that don’t open and close correctly may force your ventricles to work harder to pump blood. This can be a result of a heart infection or defect.

What are the Congestive heart failure symptoms ?

In the early stages of CHF, you most likely won’t notice any changes in your health. If your condition progresses, you’ll experience gradual changes in your body.

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Chest pain that radiates through the upper body can also be a sign of a heart attack. If you experience this or any of the other symptoms that may point to a severe heart condition, seek immediate medical attention.

How is CHF diagnosed?

After reporting your symptoms to your doctor, they may refer you to a heart specialist, or cardiologist.

Your cardiologist will perform a physical exam. The exam may involve listening to your heart with a stethoscope to detect abnormal heart rhythms. To confirm an initial diagnosis, your cardiologist might order certain diagnostic tests to examine your heart’s valves, blood vessels, and chambers.

  • An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) records your heart’s rhythm. Abnormalities in your heart’s rhythm, such as a rapid heartbeat or irregular rhythm, could suggest that the walls of your heart’s chamber are thicker than normal. That could be a warning sign for a heart attack.
  • An echocardiogram uses sound waves to record the heart’s structure and motion. The test can determine if you already have poor blood flow, muscle damage, or a heart muscle that doesn’t contract normally.
  • An MRI takes pictures of your heart. With both still and moving pictures, this allows your doctor to see if there’s damage to your heart.
  • Stress tests show how well your heart performs under different levels of stress. Making your heart work harder makes it easier for your doctor to diagnose problems.
  • Blood tests can check for abnormal blood cells and infections. Blood tests can also check the level of BNP, a hormone that rises with heart failure.
  • Cardiac catheterization can show blockages of the coronary arteries. Your doctor will insert a small tube into your blood vessel and thread it from your upper thigh (groin area), arm, or wrist. At the same time, the doctor can take blood samples, use X-rays to view your coronary arteries, and check blood flow and pressure in your heart chambers.
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How is Congestive heart failure treatment?

You and your doctor may consider different treatments depending on your overall health and how far your condition has progressed.

Congestive heart failure drugs

There are several medications that can be used to treat CHF, including:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) open up narrowed blood vessels to improve blood flow. Vasodilators are another option if you cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors.

  • benazepril (Lotensin)
  • captopril (Capoten)
  • enalapril (Vasotec)
  • fosinopril (Monopril)
  • lisinopril (Zestril)
  • quinapril (Accupril)
  • ramipril (Altace)
  • moexipril (Univasc)
  • perindopril (Aceon)
  • trandolapril (Mavik)

ACE inhibitors shouldn’t be taken with the following medications without consulting with a doctor, as they may cause an adverse reaction:

  • Thiazide diuretics can cause an additional decrease in blood pressure.
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics, such as triamterene (Dyrenium), eplerenone (Inspra), and spironolactone (Aldactone), can cause potassium buildup in the blood. This may lead to abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen, can cause sodium and water retention. This may reduce the ACE inhibitor’s effect on your blood pressure.

This is an abbreviated list, so you shouldn’t assume that something is safe to take because it isn’t listed. You should always speak with your doctor before taking any new medications.

Beta-blockers can reduce blood pressure and slow a rapid heart rhythm.

This may be achieved with:

  • acebutolol (Sectral)
  • atenolol (Tenormin)
  • bisoprolol (Zebeta)
  • carteolol (Cartrol)
  • esmolol (Brevibloc)
  • metoprolol (Lopressor)
  • nadolol (Corgard)
  • nebivolol (Bystolic)
  • propranolol (Inderal LA)
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Beta-blockers should be taken with caution with the following medications, as they may cause an adverse reaction:

  • Antiarrhythmic medications, such as amiodarone (Nexterone), can increase cardiovascular effects, including reduced blood pressure and slowed heart rate.
  • Antihypertensive medications, such as lisinopril (Zestril), candesartan (Atacand), and amlodipine (Norvasc), may also increase the likelihood of cardiovascular effects.
  • The effects of albuterol (AccuNeb) on bronchodilation may be cancelled out by beta-blockers.
  • Fentora (Fentanyl) may cause low blood pressure.
  • Antipsychotics, such as thioridazine (Mellaril), may also cause low blood pressure.
  • Clonidine (Catapres) may cause high blood pressure.

Some medications may not be listed here. You should always consult your doctor before taking any new medications.

Diuretics reduce your body’s fluid content. CHF can cause your body to retain more fluid than it should.

Your doctor may recommend:

  • Thiazide diuretics. These cause blood vessels to widen and help the body remove any extra fluid. Examples include metolazone (Zaroxolyn), indapamide (Lozol), and hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide).
  • Loop diuretics. These cause the kidneys to produce more urine. This helps remove excess fluid from your body. Examples include furosemide (Lasix), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin), and torsemide (Demadex).
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics. These help get rid of fluids and sodium while still retaining potassium. Examples include triamterene (Dyrenium), eplerenone (Inspra), and spironolactone (Aldactone).

Diuretics should be taken with caution with the following medications, as they may cause an adverse reaction:

  • ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril (Zestril), benazepril (Lotensin), and captopril (Capoten), can cause decreased blood pressure.
  • Tricyclics, such as amitriptyline and desipramine (Norpramin), may cause low blood pressure.
  • Anxiolytics, such as alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and diazepam(Valium), may cause low blood pressure.
  • Hypnotics, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and triazolam (Halcion), may cause low blood pressure.
  • Beta-blockers, such as acebutolol (Sectral) and atenolol (Tenormin), may cause low blood pressure.
  • Calcium channel blockers, such as amlodipine (Norvasc) and diltiazem (Cardizem), may cause a drop in blood pressure.
  • Nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) and isosorbide-dinitrate (Isordil), may cause low blood pressure.
  • NSAIDS, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen, may cause toxicity of the liver.

This is an abbreviated list containing only the most common drug interactions. You should always talk to your doctor before taking any new medications.

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